A selection covering the years from 1970 to the present, addressing issues in Human-computer Interaction and Engineering Design and, often, both together. Books are listed separately.

1970 Penfield, P., Spence, R. and Duinker, S. (1970) A Generalized Form of Tellegenís Theorem, IEEE Trans. on Circuit Theory, CT-17, 3, pp.302-305
Arguably one of the most fundamental theorems concerning electronic circuits, Tellegenís Theorem was powerfully generalized by the invention of Kirchhoff Operators and found to have extremely wide application.

Spence, R. and Apperley, M. (1977) The Interactive-Graphic Man-Computer Dialogue in Computer-Aided Circuit Design, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, CAS-24, 2, pp.49-61.
Comprehensive description of the first interactive-graphic system for circuit design.


Soin, R.S. and Spence, R. (1980)Statistical exploration approach to design centering, Proc.IEE Part G, 127, 6, pp.260-269

Describes a simple and successful technique for design centering, which is the modification of an engineering design to achieve the maximum manufacturing yield of a mass-produced artefact.


Spence, R. and Apperley, M. (1982) Data base navigation: an office environment for the professional, Behaviour and Information Technology, 1, 1, pp.43-54

The first description of a Focus+Context technique, known as the Bifocal Display (aka Fish-eye Lens).


Apperley, M.D. and Spence, R. (1989) Lean Cuisine: a low-fat notation for menus, Interacting with Computers,1, 1, pp.43-68

The concise Lean Cuisine notation for menu description and design has the advantage that its complexity only increases linearly with the number of menu items


Tweedie, L., Spence, R., Williams, D. and Bhogal, R. (1994) The Attribute Explorer, Conf. Companion, CHIí94, pp.435-436

The first description of the Attribute Explorer which allows interactive visualization of the relationships within multi-attribute data. It introduced a powerful sensitivity encoding technique.


Tweedie, L., Spence, R., Dawkes, H. and Su, H. (1995) The Influence Explorer, Interactive Posters, CHIí95, pp129-130

The Influence Explorer allows an engineering designer to explore, interactively, the influence between the performances and parameters of a designed artefact.


Colgan, L., Spence, R. and Rankin, P (1995)The Cockpit Metaphor, Behaviour and Information Technology, 14, 4, pp.251-263

Addresses the issue of the human guidance of automated design, and describes an experimental fully functioning system


Tweedie, L., Spence, R., Dawkes, H. and Su, H. (1996) Externalising abstract mathematical models, ACM, Proceedings CHIí96, pp.406-412

Describes two Interactive Visualization Artefacts for engineering design: The Influence Explorer and the Prosection Matrix


Spence, R. (1996)Summary of The Acquisition of Insight, a thesis submitted for a Higher Doctorate of the Royal College of Art

Describes the authorís contributions to interaction design from 1966 to 1996


Spence, R. (1999)The Facilitation of Insight for Analog Design, IEEE Trans. Circuits & Systems II, 46, 5, pp.540-548

Describes the advantages, for electronic circuit design, of the techniques of information visualization, particularly the interactive tools known as the Influence Explorer and the Prosection Matrix


Spence, R. (2002)Rapid, Serial and Visual: a presentation tool with potential, Information Visualization, 1, pp.13-19

Describes the recently emerged technique of Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) in which a collection of images is typically presented in sequence at rates up to about ten per second.The technique has many applications


Spence, R. (2004)Sensitivity, Residue and Scent: concepts to inform interaction design for the support of information space navigation, Information Design Journal, 2, 3, pp.163-180

Concepts relevant to the navigation of discrete information spaces are described and illustrated


Cooper, K., de Bruijn, O., Spence, R., and Witkowski, M. (2006)A Comparison of Static and Moving Presentation Modes for Image Collections, ACM, Proceedings of Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2006, pp. 381-388.

Investigates the effectiveness and acceptability of two classes of the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation of an image collection.


de Bruijn, O. and Spence, R. (2008)A new framework for theory-based interaction design, applied to serendipitous information retrieval, ACM Trans. Computer-human Interaction, Issue 15 article 5 (43 pp)

Cognitive theory (e.g., human visual perception) relevant to a specific human activity (e.g., opportunistic browsing) generates Design Actions that enable an interaction designer to create interfaces without requiring a knowledge of the cognitive theory.


Adams, N., Witkowski, M. and Spence, R. (2008)The Inspection of Very Large Images by Eye-gaze Control, ACM, Proceedings of Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2008, pp. 111-118.

Describes and evaluates novel methods in which detected eye-gaze is used to control the extensive panning and zooming involved in the inspection of very large images.